A chronology of key events in the history of Ethiopia from the 2nd-century Kingdom of Axum to the present day. The mercenaries were not willing to risk their lives unduly, and war became one largely of sieges and maneuvering, occasioning few pitched battles. Its attempt to occupy Ethiopia failed in the First Italo–Ethiopian War of 1895–1896. The Italian general election, 1948 saw a landslide victory for Christian Democrats, that dominated the system for the following forty years. The migration west into Italy of intellectuals fleeing the crumbling Eastern Roman Empire at this time also played a significant part. Under Augustus's rule, Roman literature grew steadily in the Golden Age of Latin Literature. Depretis enacted controversial legislation for the time, such as abolishing arrest for debt, making elementary education free and compulsory while ending compulsory religious teaching in elementary schools.[95]. They negotiated with both sides for the best deal, and got one from the Entente, which was quite willing to promise large slices of the Austro-Hungarian Empire, including the Tyrol and Trieste, as well as making Albania a protectorate. The nuraghe towers are unanimously considered the best-preserved and largest megalithic remains in Europe. Baroque. According to tradition and later writers such as Livy, the Roman Republic was established around 509 BCE,[24] when the last of the seven kings of Rome, Tarquin the Proud, was deposed by Lucius Junius Brutus, and a system based on annually elected magistrates and various representative assemblies was established. Since then the Spanish have dominated Italy, including the kingdom of Naples. The first musical theatre work that we might define as an opera today was Jacopo Peri’s Dafne, composed in the late 1590s.Unfortunately little of Peri’s score survives so Claudio Monteverdi’s Orfeo of 1607 takes the crown as the earliest work that you are able to hear. Other cities in Magna Graecia included Tarentum (Τάρας), Epizephyrian Locri (Λοκροί Ἐπιζεφύριοι), Rhegium (Ῥήγιον), Croton (Κρότων), Thurii (Θούριοι), Elea (Ἐλέα), Nola (Νῶλα), Ancona (Ἀγκών), Syessa (Σύεσσα), Bari (Βάριον), and others. The 1950s are dominated by a cold war between east and west. In 1938, under influence of Hitler, Mussolini supported the adoption of anti-semitic racial laws in Italy. The needs of a modernizing economy demanded new transport and energy infrastructures. Mussolini promised to bring Italy back as a great power in Europe, building a "New Roman Empire" and holding power over the Mediterranean Sea. 1936 – Mussolini Creates Rome-Berlin Axis with Nazi Germany. In 1935 Mussolini decided to invade Ethiopia; 2,313 Italians and 275,000 Ethiopians died. When the empire fell, a series of barbarian kingdoms initially ruled the peninsula, but, after the Lombard invasion of … 800 BC. History of Germany. View Toyota Motor Corporation's 75-year history through the Overall Chronological Table. Download this stock image: A history of Rome for junior classes : with a map of Italy and ample chronological table . [5][6] Central Italy remained under the Papal States, while the southern part remained largely feudal due to a succession of Byzantine, Arab, Norman, Spanish, and Bourbon conquests. The theory of Trasformismo was that a cabinet should select a variety of moderates and capable politicians from a non-partisan perspective. Italy completed the unification by acquiring Trento and Trieste, and gained a permanent seat in the League of Nations's executive council. In 1947, under American pressure, the communists were expelled from the government. Europe's worst earthquake, centered on the strait of Messina, kills up to 200,000 people in Sicily and southern Italy. The natural environment was constantly under threat by wild industrial expansion, leading to ecological disasters like the Vajont Dam inundation and the Seveso chemical accident. MacGregor Knox says the explanation, "was first and foremost a failure of Italy's military culture and military institutions. Lake Garda is the largest lake in Italy. Garibaldi, a native of Nice (then part of the Kingdom of Sardinia), participated in an uprising in Piedmont in 1834, was sentenced to death, and escaped to South America. When Germany invaded Poland on 1 September 1939 beginning World War II, Mussolini chose to stay non-belligerent, although he declared his support for Hitler. Italy history Timeline Timeline Description: Italy is situated in the heart of Southern Europe and is recognizable by its famous boot shape protruding into the Mediterranean. [35], Towards the end of the 2nd century BCE, a huge migration of Germanic tribes took place, led by the Cimbri and the Teutones. Genoa displays a wondrous mix of new and old - the city is the proud home of some of the most influential historical figures in Italy, such as Christopher Columbus. The Investiture controversy, a conflict over two radically different views of whether secular authorities such as kings, counts, or dukes, had any legitimate role in appointments to ecclesiastical offices such as bishoprics, was finally resolved by the Concordat of Worms in 1122, although problems continued in many areas of Europe until the end of the medieval era. Di Santarosa's troops were defeated, and the would-be Piedmontese revolutionary fled to Paris. The only significant states which retain their independence are Tuscany (now a Grand Duchy under the Medici), the Dukedom of Savoy, and the Republic of Venice. The arrival of the first hominins was 850,000 years ago at Monte Poggiolo. Effectively, in spite of Italy having given birth to some great explorers such as Christopher Columbus, Amerigo Vespucci and Giovanni da Verrazzano, the discovery of the New World undermined the importance of Venice and other Italian ports as commercial hubs by shifting Europe's center of gravity westward towards the Atlantic. The Italian Renaissance peaked in the late 15th century as foreign invasions plunged the region into turmoil. In the mid-2nd millennium BC, a third wave arrived, associated with the Apenninian civilization and the Terramare culture which takes its name from the black earth (terremare) residue of settlement mounds, which have long served the fertilizing needs of local farmers. Maps based on vector database. 133 to B.C. 1940 – Italian Start of WWII, Italy invades Greece from occupied Albania. After Russia, the other states of Europe re-allied themselves and defeated Napoleon at the Battle of Leipzig, after which his Italian allied states, with Murat first among them, abandoned him to ally with Austria. Mussolini was captured on 27 April 1945, by communist Italian partisans near the Swiss border as he tried to escape Italy. With no contemporary records of the kingdom existing, all accounts of the kings must be carefully questioned.[22]. Napoleon's Cisalpine Republic was centered on Milan. The Roman Republic was formed out of the papal holdings while the pope himself was sent to France. The history of the world isn’t easily condensed, but the timeline here does a good job of hitting the high notes and most significant events of roughly 4,000 years from the beginnings of Hinduism to the freeing of Nelson Mandela. 510 BC. 753 BCE. Political development, 1380–1454; The states of Italy in the 15th century. Both radical and conservative forces in the Italian parliament demanded that the government investigate how to improve agriculture in Italy. A history of Rome with a map of Italy and ample chronological table . Berlusconi participated in the US-led multinational coalition in Iraq. This ultimately allowed another Germanic tribe, the Lombards, to take control over vast regions of Italy. Historian R.J.B. 753 BC: Foundation of Rome (not of the Roman Empire) 2. The government implemented numerous reforms, including changes to the electoral system, a relaxation of labour and employment laws with the intention of boosting economic growth, a thorough reformation of the public administration and the introduction of same-sex civil unions. Crispi worked to build Italy as a great world power through increased military expenditures, advocation of expansionism, and trying to win Germany's favor even by joining the Triple Alliance which included both Germany and Austria-Hungary in 1882 which remained officially intact until 1915. The cowl or hood. From 1992 to 1997, Italy faced significant challenges as voters disenchanted with political paralysis, massive government debt, extensive corruption, and organized crime's considerable influence collectively called the political system Tangentopoli. In the beginning of the 15th century, adventurers and traders such as Niccolò Da Conti (1395–1469) traveled as far as Southeast Asia and back, bringing fresh knowledge on the state of the world, presaging further European voyages of exploration in the years to come. Following Antony's Donations of Alexandria, which gave to Cleopatra the title of "Queen of Kings", and to their children the regal titles to the newly conquered Eastern territories, the war between Octavian and Mark Antony broke out. It is widely accepted that Etruscans spoke a non-Indo-European language. In addition, a large Italian resistance movement started a long guerrilla war against the German and Fascist forces. He was murdered in 44 BCE, in the Ides of March by the Liberatores. Florence took Pisa in 1406, Venice captured Padua and Verona, while the Duchy of Milan annexed a number of nearby areas including Pavia and Parma. The First Triumvirate ("three men"), had satisfied the interests of these three men: Crassus, the richest man in Rome, became richer; Pompey exerted more influence in the Senate; and Caesar held consulship and military command in Gaul. The turn of the millennium brought about a period of renewed autonomy in Italian history. The path to unification and modernization created a divide between Northern and Southern Italy. His government, in loss of popularity, was anyway sacked by the end of support from centrist MPs led by Clemente Mastella. The reach of the British Empire and its navy spread cholera to Spain, Africa, Indonesia, China, Japan, Italy, Germany and America, where it killed 150,000 people. Islamic rule over Sicily was effective from 902, and the complete rule of the island lasted from 965 until 1061. On the next day, he was executed for high treason, as sentenced in absentia by a tribunal of the CLN. The Monster of Florence Douglas Preston. It is estimated that between September 1943 and April 1945 some 60,000 Allied and 50,000 German soldiers died in Italy. 476 – Flavius Odoacer Becomes First King of Italy, 774 – Charlemagne Becomes King of Lombards, 14th-16th Centuries – Italian Renaissance. [85], The leader of the 1821 revolutionary movement in Piedmont was Santorre di Santarosa, who wanted to remove the Austrians and unify Italy under the House of Savoy. The Lateran Accord of 1929 was a treaty that recognized the pope as the sovereign of the tiny Vatican City inside Rome, which gave it independent status and made the Vatican an important hub of world diplomacy. The revolutionaries were so feared that the reigning authorities passed an ordinance condemning to death anyone who attended a Carbonari meeting. Although the Italian Army was far better armed than the Fascist militias, the liberal system and King Victor Emmanuel III were facing a deeper political crisis. [38] Caesar's assassination caused political and social turmoil in Rome; without the dictator's leadership, the city was ruled by his friend and colleague, Mark Antony. Naples, Sicily, and Sardinia had for some time been under foreign domination. Etruscan expansion was focused across the Apennines. 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